General Information

Political Climate

President Sall's fight against corruption in Senegal continues to unfold. Investigations into corruption allegations against the Wade administration continue and have resulted in several achievements as numerous former officials have been arrested, including: the former head of Senegal’s telecommunications regulator, the former director general of the Senegalese Council of Shippers and the former director of the Senegalese National Lottery, according to the US Department of State 2013. Former President Wade and his administration have been charged with massive embezzlement and misuse of public funds along with several of his associates. For instance, Karim Wade, the son of former President Wade, was charged with corruption in April 2013. Karim Wade held the post of Minister of Infrastructure, International Cooperation, Energy and Air Transportation and was responsible for a budget equivalent to one-third of state expenditure. Senegal prosecutors ordered him to be detained without bail, as reported in an April 2013 article by Reuters. The article notes that Wade was charged with illegally amassing USD 1.4 billion in assets via a network of shadowy holding companies. During his term as the Minister of Infrastructure, Wade was among the list of high-ranking public officials who demanded USD 200 million bribes from the telecom company Millicom for continuing its operation in Senegal. Click here to read more about the case. In June 2012, President Sall shut down 59 state institutions and began audits of government projects, thereby improving investors' outlook for West Africa and promoting greater transparency and accountability, as reported by Freedom House 2013. President Sall also created new agencies for combating corruption, such as the Ministry of the Promotion of Good Governance and the reactivated Court of Repression of Economic and Financial Crime, according to the US Department of State 2013According to the Bertelsmann Foundation 2014, the Sall government has confirmed its willingness to fight corruption and taken some significant actions. However, corruption among lower-level officials is a hidden problem and petty corruption is a fact of daily life.  As an example, Transparency International's Global Corruption Barometer 2013 reported that 68% perceived the government's fight against corruption as 'ineffective' or 'very ineffective', while 61% perceived the level of corruption in Senegal to have increased over the past two years. Other sources, such as The Atlantic in March 2013, report that the Sall government's efforts to fight corruption are too narrow and politically charged with a main focus on the Wade administration. 

Business and Corruption

The Senegalese government encourages private sector growth and foreign companies are treated on the same footing as local ones. Companies can refer to the government website (in French) for business-related information and application forms. According to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014, access to financing, corruption and inadequate supply of infrastructure are among the greatest constraints to foreign companies operating in Senegal. The business executives surveyed from the same report state that the diversion of public funds to companies, individuals or groups due to corruption is quite common and that the lack of ethical behaviour of companies in their interactions with public officials, politicians and other companies represents a competitive disadvantage for businesses in Senegal. On a more positive note, Senegal has well-developed commercial and investment laws, and there is no legal discrimination against foreign investors. According to the US Department of State 2013, the country presents favourable conditions for investment, such as fast business registration, a relatively robust telecommunications infrastructure, and a stable regional currency pegged to the EUR. Starting a business in Senegal only takes an average of 4 procedures and 6 days at a cost of 64.3% of income per capita, which is much less than the regional average, according to the World Bank & IFC's Doing Business 2014. According to the US Department of State 2013, property rights are guaranteed by law, but enforcement is uneven outside urban areas. Senegal also has a proper legal framework to protect intellectual property rights and it is a member of the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) and the African Organisation of Intellectual Property (OAPI). Nevertheless, the Heritage Foundation 2014 reports that the enforcement of intellectual property rights has worsened in recently years, despite a sufficient legal and regulatory framework in the country. 

Many Senegalese companies are dependent on the state for business opportunities and bidding on public contracts is widespread. However, the awarding process has been characterised by a lack of transparency as the majority of contracts are awarded without competitive bidding. Decree No. 97-632 of 1997 allows public contracts with a maximum value of XOF 100 million (consultancies and equipment) and XOF 150 million (construction work) to be awarded without tender. According to media reports, corrupt practices have occurred when assigning higher-value contracts within this system. Although a new procurement code aimed at enhancing transparency came into force in 2008, it has been amended to exempt procurements made by the presidency and defence ministries from the oversight of the Autorité de Régulation des Marchés Publics (ARMP, in French), an independent regulatory authority overseeing public procurement, which has been criticised by donors and the private sector, as reported by the US Department of State 2012. The current Sall Government is directing efforts towards restoring a reputation of transparency in the procurement sector as well as enforcing procurement regulations, as reported by the US Department of State 2013. For more information see Public Procurement and Contracting and Public Anti-Corruption Initiatives.

Corruption is a major problem for businesses operating in Senegal. According to Transparency International's Bribery Survey 2011, 60% of the surveyed companies find that corruption and bribery related offences are not prosecuted in Senegal and only 46% of companies perceive that the national anti-corruption legislation is effective in fighting corruption. On a more positive note, 90% of the surveyed companies believe that fighting corruption is an ethical duty of businesses and only 28% of companies operating in Senegal have lost a contract or a business because their competitors have resorted to bribery. According to the Bertelsmann Foundation 2014, corruption is a major obstacle particularly for small companies. Foreign investors considering investing in Senegal are advised to develop, implement, and strengthen compliance systems and to carry out extensive due diligence prior to committing funds and when already doing business in the country.

Regulatory Environment

Inefficient regulation and bureaucracy continue to be impediments to both foreign and domestic companies, as noted in the US Department of State 2013. Ineffective public institutions contribute to the existence of a large informal sector, which forms the backbone of the Senegalese economy, especially in relation to employment. The Agence Nationale Chargée de la Promotion des Investissements et des Grands Travaux (APIX) works as a one-stop shop, providing relevant information and support to foreign investors. The APIX can also help investors with all administrative procedures for certification in accordance with the Investment Code and has published a guide on how to start a business (in French) in Senegal. The Support Network for Small and Medium Enterprises (in French), which is active in the regions of Thies, Diourbel and Saint Louis, offers counselling to SMEs operating in Senegal and provides several investment guides on their website.

Senegal is a member of the Organisation pour l'Harmonisation en Afrique du Droit des Affaires (OHADA, in French), the purpose of which is to bring Senegalese business laws into line with other African member countries, creating a secure regulatory and judicial environment in member states. The OHADA promotes arbitration as a means of settling commercial disputes and hosts the Common Court of Justice and Arbitration (CCJA); the US Department of State 2013 deems the dispute settlement system to be slow and cumbersome. Few judges and lawyers have enough knowledge and experience with commercial laws. Companies usually settle disputes outside the courts due to official and unofficial costs, as well as the low effectiveness of the judiciary. Senegal adheres to binding foreign arbitration of investment disputes, as the country has ratified the New York Convention 1958 and is a member of the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). An arbitration centre (in French) administrated by the Dakar Chamber of Commerce (in French) has been established, but it is not widely used. Access the Lexadin World Law Guide for a collection of legislation in Senegal.

Judicial System

Individual Corruption

According to Freedom House 2013, the low wages and lack of tenure leaves judges vulnerable to external influences. The official and unofficial costs of taking cases to court can be prohibitive for even middle-class citizens. According to the Bertelsmann Foundation 2014, the malfunctioning  judicial system and the complicated, long and expensive procedures within it often force poor Senegalese citizens to use traditional forms of settling civilian disputes.

A very significant number of the surveyed households in Transparency International’s Global Corruption Barometer 2013 perceive the Senegalese judiciary to be 'corrupt' or 'extremely corrupt'.

Business Corruption

According to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014, the surveyed business executives perceive the legal framework in settling disputes and challenging regulations as being somewhat inefficient, and that the judicial system is subject to political influence from members of government, citizens and companies.

Political Corruption

Even though the independence of the judiciary is outlined in the Senegalese constitution, several sources, such as the Bertelsmann Foundation 2014 and the US Department of State 2013, state that the judiciary is subject to government influence and that corruption is a prevalent problem. According to a 2012 article by Voice of America, after President Sall was elected in March 2012, he vowed to hold the former president's government accountable for any past misconduct. The same source reports that in June 2012 two ministers under former President Wade and the country's current Senate Chief were called in for police questioning as a part of the new administration's investigation into bribery and in order to fulfil its pledge to tackle past corruption.

Frequency

The World Bank & IFC: Doing Business 2014:
- Enforcing a commercial contract in Senegal takes 770 days, requires 43 procedures, and costs over 36.4% of the claim on average.

World Economic Forum: The Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014:
- Business executives give Senegal's judiciary's level of independence from influences of government, citizens and companies a score of 3.1 on a 7-point scale (1 being 'heavily influenced' and 7 'entirely independent').

- Business executives give the efficiency of the legal framework for private companies to settle disputes and to challenge the legality of government actions and/or regulations scores of 3.9 and 3.6 respectively on a 7-point scale (1 being 'extremely inefficient' and 7 'highly efficient').

Transparency International: Global Corruption Barometer 2013:
- 73% of households surveyed consider the judiciary to be 'corrupt' or 'extremely corrupt'.

- Citizens give the judiciary a score of 4 on a 5-point scale (1 being 'not at all corrupt' and 5 'extremely corrupt').

Police

Individual Corruption

The US Department of State 2013 reports that there have been cases where the police have detained and pressured journalists who specifically reported on government scandals, waste or fraud to reveal their sources. The same report further notes that abuse of power, corruption and impunity remain a problem among police officials. The widespread corruption within the police force is evidenced in Transparency International’s Global Corruption Barometer 2013, according to which the police are ranked as the most corrupt institution in Senegal by the surveyed households. 

Business Corruption

According to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014, business executives do not consider Senegal’s police forces to be very effective in enforcing law and order 

Political Corruption

According to several sources, such as Human Rights Report 2013 and Countries at the Crossroads 2011, corruption and immunity remain a serious problem in the police force in Senegal. Countries at the Crossroads 2011 states that any investigation into the police force needs a special authorization from its supervising ministry, the Ministry of the Interior. This procedure is said to have contributed largely to police immunity from, for instance, corruption allegations. 

Frequency

World Economic Forum: The Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014:
- Business executives give the reliability of Senegal's police services to enforce law and order a score of 4.5 on a 7-point scale (1 being 'cannot be relied upon at all' and 7 'can always be relied upon').

Transparency International: Global Corruption Barometer 2013:
- 77% of households surveyed consider the police to be 'corrupt' or 'extremely corrupt'.

- Citizens give the police a score of 4.1 on a 5-point scale (1 being 'not at all corrupt' and 5 'extremely corrupt').

Licences, Infrastructure and Public Utilities

Individual Corruption

According to the Global Corruption Barometer 2013, more than half of the surveyed households consider the medical and health care sector to be corrupt. 

Business Corruption

Obtaining licenses and permits in Senegal is time-consuming, as reported by the Heritage Foundation 2013. This is also supported by the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014, which notes that business executives find that dealing with administrative requirements can be quite difficult.

Political Corruption

Since 1998 the Millicom subsidiary of Sentel has provided mobile telephony services under the brand name "Tigo" in Senegal. Sentel’s 20-year operating license was issued prior to the 2002 enactment of Senegal's Telecommunications Act. In 2008, several high-ranking government officials, including presidential counsellor Thierno Ousmane Sy and the former President’s son, Minister of Infrastructure Karim Wade, reportedly demanded USD 200 million from Millicom to let the company continue to operate in Senegal. Millicom agreed to negotiate license enhancements but refused to pay for a license it claimed to already own. In Autumn 2008, the Senegalese government revoked Millicom’s operating license. In August 2012, Millicom and Senegal settled their dispute, ending the four-year legal battle. The government agreed to recognise the validity of Millicom’s existing license and agreed to additional concessions and new services. 

Frequency

The World Bank & IFC: Doing Business 2014:
- In order to obtain a construction permit, a company must go through 14 procedures, taking 245 days at a cost of approximately 531.7% of income per capita.

World Economic Forum: The Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014:
- Business executives give government administrative requirements (permits, regulations, reporting) in Senegal a score of 3.7 on a 7-point scale (1 being 'extremely burdensome' and 7 'not burdensome at all').

Transparency International: Global Corruption Barometer 2013:
- 57% of the surveyed households consider the medical service to be 'corrupt' or 'extremely corrupt'.

- Citizens give the medical service a score of 3.5 on a 5-point scale (1 being 'not at all corrupt' and 5 'extremely corrupt').

Land Administration

Business Corruption

Property rights are protected by law and are effectively protected in practice once ownership is established and registered, as reported by the US Department of State 2013. Nevertheless, registration processes can prove to be difficult, particularly outside Senegal’s urban areas. The World Bank & IFC's Doing Business 2014 notes that registering property in Senegal is more than twice as expensive and time-consuming as the regional average.

Frequency

The World Bank & IFC: Doing Business 2014:
- Registering property requires a company to go through an average of 6 administrative procedures, which take an average of 122 days to complete and costs 15.2% of the property value.

World Economic Forum: The Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014:
- Business executives give the protection of property rights in Senegal, including financial assets, a score of 4 on a 7-point scale (1 being 'very weak' and 7 'very strong').

Tax Administration

Individual Corruption

In a 2012 report published by Inter-Governmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa, tax evasion in Senegal is named as being widespread. The report identifies the mismanagement and the misuse of tax revenues as the main reason behind the low or non-payment of taxes. In fact, the report notes that the majority of the surveyed households attribute the prevalence of tax fraud among individuals to the corrupt behaviour of tax officials. 

Business Corruption

According to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014, business executives rank tax regulations and tax rates among the most problematic factors of doing business in Senegal. This is supported by the US Department of State 2013, which notes that tax regulations are lacking transparency. A 2012 report published by Inter-Governmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa notes that the willingness of businesses to pay taxes in Senegal is negatively affected by the multiple taxations and a significant majority of the surveyed companies perceive tax evasion to be strongly linked to corruption among tax officials.

Frequency

The World Bank & IFC: Doing Business 2014:
- Companies are required to make 59 tax payments and spend 644 hours on average at a total tax rate of 48.5% of profits annually to manage the burden of paying taxes.

IGIABA: Inter-Governmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa 2012:
- 77.3% of the surveyed households identify the corrupt behaviour of tax officials as the main reason behind tax evasion in Senegal.

- 77% of the surveyed business executives identify the corrupt behaviour of tax officials as the main reason behind tax evasion in Senegal.

Customs Administration

Business Corruption

The transparency of the border administration regarding irregular payments in exports and imports was rated as "low" among surveyed business executives in the World Economic Forum's Global Enabling Trade Report 2012, constituting a competitive disadvantage for the country. This is further supported in a 2012 report published by the African Development Bank. The report notes that the customs administration in Senegal is heavily burdened with corruption and bribery and that facilitation payments are widespread in the import and export of goods. It is reported that a truck transporting goods through, for instance, customs in Dakar, Senegal’s capital, would necessitate the payment of bribes amounting to more than USD 430.

Frequency

The World Bank & IFC: Doing Business 2014:
- A standard export shipment of goods requires 6 documents and takes 12 days at a cost of USD 1,225 per container.

- A standard import shipment of goods requires 5 documents and takes 14 days at a cost of USD 1,740 per container.

World Economic Forum: The Global Enabling Trade Report 2012:
- Business executives give the pervasiveness of irregular payments in exports and imports (pervasiveness of undocumented extra payments or bribes connected with imports and exports) in Senegal a score of 3.5 on a 7-point scale (1 'common' and 7 'never occurs').

Public Procurement and Contracting

Business Corruption

Business executives surveyed by the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014 stated that it is common in Senegal for public funds to be diverted to individuals or companies due to corruption. In addition, business executives indicated that the decisions of government officials concerning contracts and policies frequently favour well-connected companies and individuals. Therefore, companies are recommended to use a specialised public procurement due diligence tool in order to mitigate the corruption risks associated with public procurement in Senegal.

Political Corruption

A February 2013 article by France 24 reports that allegations of corruption surfaced involving the hosting of the Islamic Conference Summit in 2008 in Senegal. The Agence Nationale de l'Organisation de la Conférence Islamique (ANOCI), headed by the former President’s son, Karim Wad allegedly handed lucrative contracts to Gulf countries through non-transparent procedures. A 2012 report published by the Congressional Research Service notes that ANOCI was responsible for the corrupt awarding of large public infrastructure projects during preparations for the summit. The US Department of State 2013 reports that credible allegations of corruption have been made concerning the public procurement sector.

Frequency

World Economic Forum: The Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014:
- Business executives give the diversion of public funds to companies, individuals, or groups due to corruption a score of 2.7 on a 7-point scale (1 being 'very common' and 7 'never occurs').

- Business executives give the favouritism of government officials towards well-connected companies and individuals when deciding upon policies and contracts a score of 2.9 on a 7-point scale (1 being 'always show favouritism' and 7 'never show favouritism').

Environment, Natural Resources and Extractive Industry

Political Corruption

Transparency International reported in November 2013 that 20% of Senegal's exports come from mining and current legislation and oversight mechanisms are not sufficient to strengthen governance within the sector. However, Senegal's application to join the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) was approved in 2013 and it remains an EITI candidate country. Click here to read about EITI Senegal. 

Public Anti-Corruption Initiatives

  • Government Strategies: The most recent anti-corruption measures were initiated by the current President, Macky Sall, who launched independent audits in order to investigate all members of the former Wade Regime, including Sall himself, despite the existing laws prohibiting a review of a sitting president. This step is aimed at promoting greater transparency within Senegal's government according to a June 2012 article by Economy Watch. Furthermore, the Sall Administration has established new agencies focused on the fight against corruption. The agencies include: the Ministry for the Promotion of Good Governance, the National Anticorruption Office, the National Commission on Restitution and Recovery of Ill-gotten Assets, and the Court of Repression of Economic and Financial Crime (see below), as reported by the US Department of State 2013. The Bertelsmann Foundation 2014 suggests that anti-corruption policies have been enforced under the Sall administration and many significant improvements have been observed. However, corruption and incompetence are still a problem in the civil service. 
  • Office Nationale de Lutte contre la Fraude et la Corruption (OFNAC): President Sall created the OFNAC to replace the Commission Nationale de Lutte Contre la non Transparence, la Corruption et la Concussion (CNLCC). According to a December 2012 article by Agence De Presse Sénégalaise, the OFNAC represents a more effective tool for fighting corruption than the CNLCC established under former President Wade. For instance, the CNLCC referred corruption cases to the president, while the OFNAC refers cases directly to the prosecutor and is not influenced by any member of government. Furthermore, the OFNAC is able to independently launch investigations, as reported by the US Department of State 2013. The agency also publishes annual reports.
  • Ministre de la Promotion de la Bonne Gouvernance (The Ministry for the Promotion of Good Governance, in French): established by President Sall, is charged with overseeing all ministries’ implementation and good governance, as reported by the US Department of State 2013. According to a February 2013 article by Foroyaa Newspaper, the Ministry has laid out strategies to enhance institutional and political governance, good governance within the judiciary, accountability and effective public administration as well as other areas. The Ministry has developed a citizen-control strategy which aims to encourage the participation and involvement of citizens in the governance process. Different departments and structures have also been created in order to implement the Ministry’s strategies.
  • The National Commission on Restitution and Recovery of Ill-gotten Assets: The agency was created with the aim of recovering stolen and hidden assets and the referral of the deposits to the state treasury, as reported by the US Department of State 2013.
  • The Court of Repression of Economic and Financial Crime: The agency was reactivated by the Sall Administration and aims to fight economic crimes committed by officials, including money laundering, illegal foreign transfers and theft, as reported by the US Department of State 2013.
  • Customs Service (DGD, in French): The DGD has implemented a system of rotation where an official cannot hold a position for more than three years in order to limit the possibilities of corruption. Furthermore, an action plan to combat fraud has been initiated and a private contractor, Cotecna S.A., has been hired to do pre-shipment inspections.
  • General Economics, Finances, Plan and Economic Cooperation Committee (GEFPECC): The GEFPECC is in charge of overseeing the national budget, financial activities, and other expenditures related to the public sector, such as state-owned companies. The GEFPECC receives reports quite irregularly and these reports supposedly suffer from several flaws. The GEFPECC is thus unable to perform its duties in a satisfactory manner and, because it is dominated by the ruling party, its political independence has been called into question.
  • Supreme Audit Institution: The Inspection Générale d'État (IGE, in French) was established in 1964 as the highest organ of administrative control over public expenditure. Only the president can initiate investigations and the institution does not have the authority to publicise results of their monitoring. This is further emphasised by Freedom House 2011, which notes that the IGE has limited powers as it can only initiate investigation upon the orders of the president. The audit reports are intended to be exclusively for the relevant minister or the president. The IGE is reported to be understaffed and to lack the necessary resources with which to conduct effective monitoring. In the Open Budget Initiative's Open Budget Index 2012, Senegal scores very low, showing that the government provides the public with scant budgetary information, making it very difficult for citizens to hold the government accountable for its management of public money.
  • Ombudsman: The Médiateur de la République (in French), Senegal's Ombudsman Office is legally protected from political interference, which also holds in practice. According to Freedom House 2011, the head of the Médiateur de la République serves a 6-year mandate and cannot be removed without significant justifications. The agency has a full-time staff and receives regular funding. The ombudsman publishes reports available to the public and the government is known to take into account many of the ombudsman's recommendations. Nevertheless, the agency has limited investigative powers as the cooperation of public investigative agencies is necessary in order to assert the effectiveness of the institution.
  • E-Governance: Information on government agencies can be found at the website of the Senegalese government (in French). Agence Nationale Chargée de la Promotion d'Investissements des Grands Travaux (APIX) is Senegal's national investment promotion agency and serves as a one-stop shop for registration and obtaining approvals needed to operate a business in Senegal. Furthermore, information on regulatory business procedures can be found at the professional section of the Démarches Administratives homepage (in French). The Agence de L’information de l’état (ADIE) in Senegal is an e-government portal responsible for the national e-government strategy, the automation of public sector institutions and the development of an e-government architecture and interoperability framework. Nevertheless, the agency does not coordinate electronic public procurement, as reported by a 2013 report published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Yet, the agency’s ability to promote interoperability has been hampered by the lack of coherent and consistent guidelines for information and communication technologies and e-government-related projects. The Senegalese government is also planning to establish electronic access to tax-related services through the Direction Générale des Impôts et Domaines (in French).
  • Public Procurement: The new Procurement Code 2008 limits the possibility of awarding contracts without public and open bidding - legislation which also applies to governmental agencies. Furthermore, the government has started publishing on a quarterly basis a list of awarded contracts to enhance transparency of public expenditure. The Autorité de Régulation des Marchés Publics (ARMP, in French) is an independent regulatory authority responsible for the implementation of the new legislation on procurement. The ARMP handles bidders' complaints and carries out audits. According to the US Department of State 2012, changes made to the new code to exclude procurements by the presidency and ministries in charge of national security from the ARMP were criticised by donors and the private sector. The Commission Nationale des Contrats de l'Administration (CNCA) monitors public contracts so as to ensure transparent and competitive bidding. Contracts regarding construction or renovation of state buildings are not submitted to the CNCA. According to a 2013 report published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the government of Senegal has established various provisions for promoting the participation of local SMEs in public tenders. These include for instance, measures to break down large tenders, a requirement to publish tenders online and to inform rejected candidates. Nevertheless, the provisions also suffer shortcomings, such as: Complex legislation, prerequisites for bidding, partial online publication of public tenders and limited feedback on tender evaluation outcomes.
  • Whistleblowing: The Senegalese Constitution has no national regulations on whistleblowing, but as Senegal has ratified the UNCAC (Art. 15), such restrictions are automatically part of its legal provisions. Moreover, Art. 98 of the Senegalese Constitution states that conventions legally ratified have immediate effect on national law. Thus both public and private sector employees who report on corruption are protected from negative consequences.

Private Anti-Corruption Initiatives

  • Media: Although the Constitution and law provide for freedom of speech and of the press, the government limits those rights in practice, as reported by the US Department of State 2013. Independent media is often critical of the government and several independent radio stations and newspapers do exist. Self-censorship is sometimes practiced because of strict libel laws and national security provisions, which have been used against journalists reporting on corruption and abuse of power by politicians. The US Department of State 2012 notes that the police often pressure journalists reporting on government fraud and scandals to reveal their sources. For example, according to a February 2011 news article by Transparency International, Abdou Latif Coulibaly, an investigative reporter who won TI’s annual Integrity Award in 2005 for his outspoken critique of financial scandals, embezzlement cases and irregularities in public contracting in Senegal was charged with criminal defamation in three cases as a result of his critical articles. Moreover, there have been reports of journalists being imprisoned in relation to investigations on corruption. In the run-up to the 2012-presidential election, several journalists covering the event were beaten and harassed by the police, as reported by Freedom House 2013Freedom House 2013 reports that grants or the withholding of subsidies were commonly used by the Wade government to influence media outlets and it still remains to be seen whether or not this practise will continue under Sall's administration. Furthermore, the US Department of State 2013 reports that there was a lack of transparency in the allocation of radio frequencies, noting that the radio is the most important source of information and news for the Senegalese people. Access to the internet is unrestricted and no monitoring by the government has been reported. According to Freedom House 2013, the press in Senegal is considered to be "partly free" and ranks 109th out of 197 countries. Additionally, Senegal ranks 62nd out of 180 countries on the Reporters Without Borders' Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2014.

  • Civil Society: The right to free association and assembly is guaranteed by law. The Bertelsmann Foundation 2014 evaluates civil society groups in Senegal as being active and strong and the groups that work with human rights and good governance as being the strongest in West Africa. Sall's government has also invited more civil society groups into their political dicussions. However, the report suggests that civil society groups are mainly limited to urban areas and they often suffer from lack of financial support. Freedom House 2013 reports that in the run-up to the 2012 presidential elections, the government attempted to curb the work of civil society. 

  • Aid Transparency (in French): Aid Transparency is a regional NGO based in Dakar. It works on improving governance in Africa and monitoring the spending of international development aid, together with improving democracy and public participation in state affairs. It operates programmes specifically focused on transparency and publishes studies on the subject.

  • African Parliamentarians Network Against Corruption Senegal (APNAC): APNAC is a leading all-party parliamentary anti-corruption network in Africa. Its main work is to promote good governance and to strengthen parliamentary capacity to fight corruption. APNAC is active in capacity-building, information campaigns, promotion of anti-corruption legislation and establishing a legal framework to promote free elections.

  • Forum Civil (in French): Forum Civil is the Senegalese national chapter of Transparency International, created in 1993 and working to promote transparency and good governance. Its work includes conducting surveys and research, awareness-raising and engaging civil society in the struggle against corruption. Representatives of Forum Civil have travelled the country to record how corruption is affecting individual lives and to amass signatories for its No Impunity petition. The petition stipulates that government officials have to declare their assets and calls on the newly established anti-corruption agency to tackle official corruption and particularly the politicisation of the judiciary.
  • TrustAfrica: TrustAfrica is a foundation based in Dakar. It works on facilitating collaboration among African institutions and building long-term relationships with grantees to maintain accountable and transparent governance and sustainable results among NGOs. It focuses on providing collaborative grants and technical assistance in order to stimulate institutional collaboration across Africa and also supports research on the investment climate through the Investment Climate and Business Environment Research Fund (ICBE).

Resources

The websites listed below provide useful facts on Senegal as well as contacts and tools for companies operating in the country:

 

Sources for further reading:

Conventions and Indices

UNCAC Status: Signed 9 December 2003. Ratified 16 November 2005.

Status on UNCAC Implementation
This field describes the country's status on the United Nations Convention against Corruption. Please note any declarations and reservations made upon ratification. The list of signatories can be found on the UNODC website. Read more about the UNCAC.

Other Relevant Conventions or Treaties:

 

Transparency CPI: 2013: 77/175 (Score: 41)

Transparency CPI
This field consists of the score for the country in question on the Corruption Perceptions Index from Transparency International as well as its ranking.

World Bank CORR Index (-2.5 - +2.5): 2012: -0.3

World Bank Corruption Index
This field consists of the score for the country in question on the 'Control of Corruption' indicator in the Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI): 1996-2012.

OECD Country Risk Classification (0-7): 2013: 6

Country Risk Classification
The classification of countries by risk category has the aim of providing OECD countries with a basis for calculating the premium interest rate to be charged to cover the risk of non-repayment of export credits. Countries are placed in risk categories 0 - 7, with 0 being the lowest risk category and thus the least expensive. Conversely, premium group 7 is the highest risk category. Each classification is comprised of 2 components: 1) an assessment of the country's economic/financial situation, and 2) its overall political stability. Access the complete list of OECD Country Risk Classification figures.

Data Verification:

Publication date: March 2014

Data verified by: GAN Integrity Solutions 

Information Network

 


Relevant Organisations

 

Aid Transparency

Cité SAGEF, Villa N15-ZAC de Mbao
P.O. Box 5409
Dakar

Tel: +221 33 836 64 87
E-mail: LOADEMAIL[at]DOMAIN[aidtransparency.org]

Dakar based NGO working on democratisation issues and on good governance.

Forum Civil

Résidence Linguère Medina
40, Avenue El Hadji Malick Sy
P.O. Box 28.554
Dakar

Tel: +221 33 842 40 44
Fax: + 221 33 842 40.45
E-mail: forumcivil@orange.sn

National chapter of Transparency International.

African Parliamentarians Network Against Corruption Senegal (APNAC)

BP 3975
Dakar

Contact Person: Doudou Wade
Tel: +221 823 1619/ 637 9538
Fax: + 221 823 9402/ 820 1002
E-mail: LOADEMAIL[dwade]DOMAIN[assemblee-nationale.sn] / LOADEMAIL[wade]DOMAIN[arc.sn]

A network of parliamentarians from different African countries working to strengthen parliamentary capacity.

Chambre de Commerce d'Industrie et d'Agriculture de Dakar (CCIAD, in French)

1, Place de l'Indpendance
P.O. Box 118
Dakar

Tel: +221 823 7189
Fax: +221 823 9363
E-mail: LOADEMAIL[cciad]DOMAIN[orange.sn]

Chamber of Commerce and also the host of the Senegalese ICC Chapter.

Services d'Appui aux Petites et Moyennes Entreprises du Sénégal (PME, in French)

Agence de Développement et d'Encadrement des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises (ADEPME)
9, Fenêtre Mermoz Dakar
P.O. Box 333
Dakar Fann

Tel: +221 33 869 7071
Fax: +221 33 860 1363
E-mail: LOADEMAIL[adepme]DOMAIN[orange.sn]

Information site for small and medium-sized companies created by the agency for SME development.

Agence Nationale Chargée de la Promotion des Investissements et des Grands Travaux (APRIX)

52-54, Rue Mohamed V.
P.O. Box 430, CP 18524
Dakar RP

Tel: +221 849 0555
Fax: +221 823 9489
E-mail: LOADEMAIL[contact]DOMAIN[apix.sn]

Senegal's Investment Promotion Agency.

 


Partner Embassies

 

Danish Consulate

Consulat Général de Danemark
c/o Maersk Senegal S.A.
Km. 3,5 Bd du Centenaire de la Commune de Dakar
P.O. Box 3836
Dakar

Tel: +221 859 1103
Fax: +221 832 1331
E-mail: LOADEMAIL[dkrconsul]DOMAIN[maersk.com]

Consulate.

Norwegian Consulate

10 Rue Huart, 3ème étage
BP 2032 Dakar – Sénégal

Tel: +221 33 822 3074/9870
Fax: +221 33 823 6599
Email: LOADEMAIL[suedorig]DOMAIN[hotmail.com]

 

Consulate.

Embassy of Sweden

Visiting Address

Malmtorgsgatan 3
Stockholm

Postal address

Office of the Stockholm-based Ambassadors
UD KSS
Ministry for Foreign Affairs
SE-103 39 Stockholm
Sweden


Tel: +46 8 405 10 00
Fax: +46 8 723 11 76
E-mail: LOADEMAIL[ud-kss]DOMAIN[gov.se]

Embassy.

British Embassy

20, Rue du Docteur Guillet
P.O. Box 6025
Dakar

Tel.: +221 33 823 7392
Fax +221 33 823 27 66

Embassy.

Embassy of Austria

18, Rue Emile Zola
P.O. Box 3247
Dakar

Tel: +221 33 849 4000
Fax: +221 33 849 4370
E-mail: LOADEMAIL[dakar-ob]DOMAIN[bmeia.gv.at]

Embassy.

Country Profile Sources

General Information Sources

Corruption Levels Sources

Judicial System

Police

Licences, Infrastructure and Public Utilities

Land Administration

Tax Administration

Customs Administration

Public Procurement and Contracting

Environment, Natural Resources and Extractive Industry

  • Transparency International: 'Making mining more transparent: Senegal and Ukraine', 15 November 2013.
  • The Guardian: 'Senegal revokes licences of foreign fishing trawlers,' 04 May 2012.
  • Online Today: 'Sub-regional cooperation needed for sustainable fisheries,' 30 March 2010.

Public Anti-Corruption Initiatives Sources

Private Anti-Corruption Initiatives Sources