President Sall's fight against corruption in Senegal continues to unfold. Investigations into corruption allegations against the Wade administration continue and have resulted in several achievements as numerous former officials have been arrested, including: the former head of Senegal’s telecommunications regulator, the former director general of the Senegalese Council of Shippers and the former director of the Senegalese National Lottery, according to the US Department of State 2013. Former President Wade and his administration have been charged with massive embezzlement and misuse of public funds along with several of his associates. For instance, Karim Wade, the son of former President Wade, was charged with corruption in April 2013. Karim Wade held the post of Minister of Infrastructure, International Cooperation, Energy and Air Transportation and was responsible for a budget equivalent to one-third of state expenditure. Senegal prosecutors ordered him to be detained without bail, as reported in an April 2013 article by Reuters. The article notes that Wade was charged with illegally amassing USD 1.4 billion in assets via a network of shadowy holding companies. During his term as the Minister of Infrastructure, Wade was among the list of high-ranking public officials who demanded USD 200 million bribes from the telecom company Millicom for continuing its operation in Senegal. Click here to read more about the case. In June 2012, President Sall shut down 59 state institutions and began audits of government projects, thereby improving investors' outlook for West Africa and promoting greater transparency and accountability, as reported by Freedom House 2013. President Sall also created new agencies for combating corruption, such as the Ministry of the Promotion of Good Governance and the reactivated Court of Repression of Economic and Financial Crime, according to the US Department of State 2013. According to the Bertelsmann Foundation 2014, the Sall government has confirmed its willingness to fight corruption and taken some significant actions. However, corruption among lower-level officials is a hidden problem and petty corruption is a fact of daily life. As an example, Transparency International's Global Corruption Barometer 2013 reported that 68% perceived the government's fight against corruption as 'ineffective' or 'very ineffective', while 61% perceived the level of corruption in Senegal to have increased over the past two years. Other sources, such as The Atlantic in March 2013, report that the Sall government's efforts to fight corruption are too narrow and politically charged with a main focus on the Wade administration.